Origin/History of the UN
The experience of the First World War (1914-1918) made the leading countries of the world establish an international organisation, the League of Nations, in 1919 to help prevent future war and promote international peace, cooperation and security. The organisation had its headquarters in Geneva. That there was a Second World War (1939-1945) showed the failure of the League of Nations and the need for a more effective organisation. This led to the formation of the United Nations Organisation (UNO) in 1945 to replace the League of Nations.
Four countries, namely Britain, China, USSR and the United States of America were the core founders of the UNO. Their London conference declaration of 1941, the Atlantic Charter of 1942 and the Moscow conference of 1943 all prepared grounds for the eventual establishment of the United Nations Organisation. The Dumbarton Oaks Conference of 1944 which took place in the United States and attended by Great Britain, China, the Soviet Union and the United States of America prepared the draft of what later became the Charter of the United Nations.
A meeting of fifty nations was convened the following year, 1945, in San-Francisco, America where the initial draft was debated, modified and finally adopted-thereby becoming the main charter’of the organisation. The headquarters of the organisation is in New York, USA.
Aims and Objectives of the UN
1. To maintain peace and security throughout the world. All member nations must settle their international disputes in such a way that would not endanger world peace and security.
2. To ensure respect for the principles of fundamental human rights and freedom of all people without discrimination on the basis of sex, race, religion or language.
3. To encourage friendly relations among member states based on mutual respect, equal rights and self-determination of the people.
4. To get member states to cooperate in the areas of social, economic, humanitarian and cultural needs of mankind.
5. To uphold the sovereignty of member states, but intervene in their policies which threaten world peace and security.
6. To prevent war and settle disputes among member states by peaceful negotiations.
7. To facilitate the independence of trust territories and provide leadership training for emerging leaders.
8. To get member states to tolerate and live peacefully with one another to enable the organisation achieve its objectives.
9. To encourage member states to fulfil their obligations under the charter they have assumed in good faith.
10. To ensure that non-member states do not endanger world peace and security through their actions.