Since around 30 years ago, Nigeria’s main source of internal revenue has been crude oil. Nigeria, the largest oil producer in Africa, with a daily production capacity of 2.5 million barrels and produces a variety of crude oils that are stored in various oilfields in the country’s south and west. The oil produced in Nigeria is typically of excellent quality and contains little sulfur. We’ll talk about the different types of crude oil found in Nigeria in this post.
In 1907, a number of foreign companies started investigating the commercial viability of Nigerian oil. In 1937, Shell-BP (Shell and British Petroleum) received permission to start their investigation. At 1956, it was the first business to find this natural resource in Oloibiri, Bayelsa State, in the Niger Delta. Nigerian oil companies concentrate on the Niger Delta Basin’s coastline oil fields since they are the most productive. Nigeria produces various high-quality oil varieties, such as Forcados, Esquavos, Odudu, and Bonnie.
TYPES OF CRUDE OIL FOUND IN NIGERIA: FULL LIST
Below are the various types of crude oil you can find in Nigeria today:
BONNY LIGHT CRUDE OIL (BLCO)
In Oloibiri, Bayelsa, in the Nigerian Niger Delta, Bonny Light crude oil was first found in commercial quantities in 1956. Bonny Light is a light oil with an API of 32.9 and is valued higher than other types of crude oil with a lower API. The Bonny Light is widely sought after since the refinement process results in the production of additional high-value items. Because of this, Bonny Light is more expensive than heavier crude. India, USA, the Netherlands, Spain, Canada, South Africa, France, Togo, Argentina, Uruguay and Cote D’Ivoire are the top purchasers of this crude oil from Nigeria.
The oil Escravos Light is delicate and pleasant type of crude oil found in Nigeria. Off the Niger Delta coast in the southern section of the nation, Escravos Light is generated. The Escravos Terminal is run by US oil colossus Chevron, which cranks out 200,000 barrels of crude and condensates daily.
The OML123 offshore oilfields and the OML114 oilfields produce the high-value, low-sulfur, light crude oil known as the Antan Blend. The Antan Blend is highly sought after for export to major markets including African countries like Togo and South Africa, European countries like Spain, Argentina, and Netherlands because to its excellent qualities.
BRASS RIVER BLEND
The Brass River Blend is a premium crude oil with very little sulphur, little metal, and little aliphatic content. Due to the low sulphur level of the refined goods made from this crude, the Brass Blend becomes extremely valuable. Additional characteristics of this delicious, medium-light crude include the following: Vanadium level is 0.1 mg/kg, nickel content is 1.2 mg/kg, and acidity is 0.30 mg KOH/g.
Another special type of crude oil produced in Nigeria is called Forcados Blend. The Forcados Blend has a daily production capacity of about 200,000 barrels. This crude oil blend’s low sulphur level of 0.29% and API Gravity of 29.7 make it highly valuable on the international market.
Bonnie Medium possesses a pour point of -27 degrees Celsius, an API Gravity of 25,2 and a low sulphur content of 0.23%. The Kinematic Viscosity of 12 mm2/s for Bonny Medium is an additional crucial characteristic. The low levels of sulfur in the metal and asphalt components allow for the low sulphur content of the refined products as well.
Ukpokiti is a light, smooth crude oil type produced from OML 108 off the coast of Delta state in the Nigerian Niger Delta. The oil field from which the Ukpokiti blend is made is operated by Shebah Exploration & Production Company, although production has been steadily declining for years because of SEPCOL’s cash flow issues.
The Qua-Iboe Light is a special mixture with extremely low amounts of metals, asphaltic compounds, and sulfur. The Bight of Biafra in the southeast of Nigeria is home to various offshore oil fields that produce this crude oil. The Qua-Iboe Terminal receives the well-balanced intermediate crude, known as Qua-Iboe Light, from the offshore oil fields. Additionally, this crude is in high demand due to the Qua-Iboe Light’s premium quality. This is due to the low sulphur level of the products that would be produced once Qua-Iboe crude was refined. Currently, the production rate is about 320 kbd on average. These fields are operated by ExxonMobil, which owns a 40% stake; the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) owns the remaining 60%.
This medium light smooth crude oil known as Pennington Blend is produced off the Bayelsa coast in southern Nigeria. Chevron runs the offshore Penington facility, which can now process 2000 barrels per day. Because additional low-sulfur products would be created throughout the refining process because to Pennington blend’s low sulphur level of 0.11% and API of 33.7, it is a very desirable crude.
Japan Petroleum found the IMA crude oil in Port Harcourt in the 1970s, but it wasn’t until AMNI International Petroleum Development bought the license in 1993 from the NNPC that exploitation of the find could begin. This crude oil is generated by the shallow water oil field OML112 (OPL469). Since production in the OML112 oil field began in 1994, more than 98.35% of the IMA blend’s reserve has been recovered, and as a result, production is anticipated to finish in 2024.
This light crude oil was produced in the country’s eastern region. The following oilfields are used to produce this distinctive crude oil blend: Odudu (OML 100), Ofon (102) and Amenam (OML99). The Unity Floating Storage and Offloading vessel owned by Total Energies receives the oil exported from these oilfields. The FSO Unity now receives 230,000 barrels of oil per day. This distinctive crude blend is produced at the Odudu Terminal, which is owned by ExxonMobil and the NNPC with Elf Petroleum Nigeria as the operator.
The Nigerian oil industry accounts for the majority of its income. The following crude oil types such as Ukpokiti, Bonny Light, Qua-Iboe Light, Escravos Light, and Bonny Light, among other crude oil kinds are extremely sought-after on the global market due to the low sulphur content of all crude oil types produced in Nigeria.