Definition of Socialization
Socialization can be defined as the process of teaching and learning of the various norms, values, issues and activities of the society through which an individual is made a normal human being, who possesses a culture and is capable and is able to participate actively in social relations within his or society.
Socialization is a process by which the citizens are educated on the values,attitudes and beliefs of the society. It is through socialization that the citizens internalize the culture of the society. This is done through the agents of socialization.
Agents of Socialization
There are some notable agents that contribute in one way or the other in changing the individual, his roles and expectations and these include: the family, the peer group, the school, the church, the mass media, pressure groups among others. These socialization agents shall be discussed below:
1. The Family
The home is the first place an individual makes his first contact. In Nigeria, the family which is the first primary agent of socialization is made up of the father, mother, children, the siblings and other members of the extended family. Here, children can learn mainly through observation of their parents. It is the family that educates the individual informally through the indirect teaching and indoctrination of their values and norms.
2. The School
The school is the greatest agent of socialization. Educational institutions play significant role in the socialization of the citizens of a country. Socialization in the school is formalized; there are planned timetable and a diversified curriculum for the effective transmission of culture in all ramifications. In school, certain norms are taught to the child, such as honesty, punctuality, good social relationship, among others.
3. The Peer-Group
The peer group as a primary agent of socialization, is composed of some members sharing relatively equal status, are bound together by some intimate ties and sharing come ideals to which they all agree.It is usually composed of children who are playmates, of an age bracket, friendship ties, and small work groups. The peer-group of an individual tends to socialize the individual through discussions, communication of ideas and consideration of issues of interest among all members in common.
4. The Church/Mosque and Role
The church/mosque is one of the agents of socialization. It is a building that habours people who believe in Supreme being called Cod or Allah for the Muslims. The primary aim of any church/mosque is to inculcate in the children, faith and moral values through the use of a Holy book called Bible (Christians) and Koran (Muslims).
5. The Mass Media
The mass media includes radios, newspapers, television, magazines, among others. The aim is for the members of a society to deliberate themselves and win for themselves freedom from ignorance, abject poverty and squalor. The mass media socialize the youths by providing information, education and entertainment. Here, people are socialized through what they read, listen to and watch in the mass media